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南华真经

  南华真经:《南华真经》即《庄子》,战国时庄周撰。唐玄宗于天宝元年诏封庄子为"南华真人",尊其书为《南华真经》。道教奉为"三玄、四子"真经之一。该书上承老子,宣扬虚无之道为万物本源,主张"齐万物、同是非、无己无待、返朴归真、与道合一"。

  庄子

  内篇

  逍遥游第一

  北冥有鱼,其名为鯤。鯤之大,不知其几千里也。化而为鸟,其名为鹏。鹏之背,不知其几千里也。怒而飞,其翼若垂天之云。是鸟也,海运则将徙於南冥。南冥者,天池也。《齐谐》者,志怪者也。《谐》之言曰:「鹏之徙於南冥也,水击三千里,摶扶摇而上者九万里,去以六月息者也。」野马也,尘埃也,生物之以息相吹也。天之苍苍,其正色邪?其远而无所至极邪?其视下也,亦若是则已矣。且夫水之积也不厚,则其负大舟也无力。覆杯水於坳堂之上,则芥为之舟;置杯焉则胶,水浅而舟大也。风之积也不厚,则其负大翼也无力。故九万里,则风斯在下矣,而后乃今培风,背负青天而莫之夭閼者,而后乃今将图南。蜩与学鳩笑之曰:「我决起而飞,枪榆枋,时则不至,而控於地而已矣,奚以之九万里而南为?」适莽苍者,三湌而反,腹犹果然;适百里者,宿舂粮;适千里者,三月聚粮,之二虫又何知,小知不及大知,小年不及大年。奚以知其然也?朝菌不知晦朔,蟪蛄不知春秋,此小年也。楚之南有冥灵者,以五百岁为春,五百岁为秋;上古有大椿者,以八千岁为春,八千岁为秋。而彭祖乃今以久特闻,眾人匹之,不亦悲乎!汤之问棘也是已。穷发之北有冥海者,天池也。有鱼焉,其广数千里,未有知其修者,其名为鯤。有鸟焉,其名为鹏,背若太山,翼若垂天之云,摶扶摇羊角而上者九万里,绝云气,负青天,然后图南,且适南冥也。斥鴳笑之曰:「彼且奚适也?我腾跃而上,不过数仞而下,翱翔蓬蒿之间,此亦飞之至也。而彼且奚适也?」此小大之辩也。故夫知效一官,行比一乡,德合一君,而徵一国者,其自视也亦若此矣。而宋荣子犹然笑之。且举世而誉之而不加劝,举世而非之而不加沮,定乎内外之分,辩乎荣辱之境,斯已矣。彼其於世未数数然也。虽然,犹有未树也。夫列子御风而行,泠然善也,旬有五日而后反。彼於致福者,未数数然也。此虽免乎行,犹有所待者也。若夫乘天地之正,而御六气之辩,以游无穷者,彼且恶乎待哉?故曰,至人无己,神人无功,圣人无名。 尧让天下於许由,曰:「日月出矣而爝火不息,其於光也,不亦难乎!时雨降矣而犹浸灌,其於泽也,不亦劳乎!夫子立而天下治,而我犹尸之,吾自视缺然。请致天下。」许由曰:「子治天下,天下既已治也。而我犹代子,吾将为名乎?名者,实之宾也。吾将为宾乎?鷦鷯巢於深林,不过一枝;偃鼠饮河,不过满腹。归休乎君,予无所用天下为!庖人虽不治庖,尸祝不越樽俎而代夹。」

  肩吾问於连叔曰:「吾闻言於接舆,大而无当,往而不返。吾惊怖其言,犹河汉而无极也;大有逕庭,不近人情焉。」连叔曰:「其言谓何哉?」曰:「藐姑射之山,有神人居焉,肌肤若冰雪,绰约若处子。不食五穀,吸风饮露,乘云气,御飞龙,而游乎四海之外。其神凝,使物不疵癘而年穀熟。吾以是狂而不信也。」连叔曰:「然。瞽者无以与乎文章之观,聋者无以与乎鐘鼓之声。岂唯形骸有聋盲哉?夫知亦有之。是其言也,犹时女也。之人也,之德也,将旁礴万物以为一世蘄乎乱,孰弊弊焉以天下为事!之人也,物莫之伤,大浸稽天而不溺,大旱金石流土山焦而不热。是其尘垢秕糠,将犹陶铸尧舜者也。孰肯以物为事! 宋人资章甫而适诸越,越人断发文身,无所用之。尧治天下之民,平海内之政,往见四子藐姑射之山,汾水之阳,银然丧其天下焉。惠子谓庄子曰:「魏王貽我大瓠之种,我树之成而实五石,以盛水浆,其坚不能自举也。剖之以为瓢,则瓠落无所容。非不呺然大也,吾为其无用而掊之。」庄子曰:「夫子固拙於用大矣。宋人有善为不龟手之药者,世世以擤軔陲为事。客闻之,请买其方百金。聚族而谋曰:『我世世为擤軔陲,不过数金;今一朝而鬻技百金,请与之。』客得之,以说吴王。越有难,吴王使之将,冬与越人水战,大败越人,裂地而封之。能不龟手,一也;或以封,或不免於擤軔陲,则所用之异也。今子有五石之瓠,何不虑以为大樽而浮乎江湖,而忧其瓠落无所容?则夫子犹有蓬之心也夫!」惠子谓庄子曰:「吾有大树,人谓之樗。其大本拥肿而不中绳墨,其小枝卷曲而不中规矩,立之涂,匠者不顾。今子之言,大而无用,眾所同去也。」庄子曰:「子独不见貍狌乎?卑身而伏,以候敖者;东西跳梁,不辟高下,中於机辟,死于罔罟。今夫斄牛,其大若垂天之云。此能为大矣,而不能执鼠。今子有大树,患其无用,何不树之於无何有之乡,广莫之野,彷徨乎无为其侧,逍遥乎寝卧其下。不夭斤斧,物无害者,无所可用,安所困苦哉?」

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